One of the biggest challenges for children learning multiplication and division is that now students are required to think in terms of groups of things rather than individual objects. No longer are students asked to think of a number as a single quantity but now, a number represents two meanings simultaneously: a quantity of groups and the quantity within the group. Children who are just learning multiplication often use additive strategies such as skip counting or repeated addition. We expect that by the end of third grade, children are thinking multiplicatively to solve problems (thinking in terms of groups). Flexible use of multiplication strategies vary depending on the numbers and therefore require an understanding of the operations and the algebraic properties such as the “turn around” strategy (commutative property), the distributive and the associative property. Use of these strategies help students develop confidence in their ability to deal with numerical situations with flexibility, ease and efficiency. The following are some examples of how these strategies, properties and models are used:

## Multiplication and Division

One of the biggest challenges for children learning multiplication and division is that now students are required to think in terms of groups of things rather than individual objects. No longer are students asked to think of a number as a single quantity but now, a number represents two meanings simultaneously: a quantity of groups and the quantity within the group. Children who are just learning multiplication often use additive strategies such as skip counting or repeated addition. We expect that by the end of third grade, children are thinking multiplicatively to solve problems (thinking in terms of groups). Flexible use of multiplication strategies vary depending on the numbers and therefore require an understanding of the operations and the algebraic properties such as the “turn around” strategy (commutative property), the distributive and the associative property. Use of these strategies help students develop confidence in their ability to deal with numerical situations with flexibility, ease and efficiency. The following are some examples of how these strategies, properties and models are used:

An additional resource can be found on the Parent Resource page at this link: Multiplication and Division Presentation

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